This topic will focus on two specific aspects of citizen science. The first involves the development of new scientific knowledge and/or innovations with/by citizen scientists. The intended citizen science activities should be clearly defined and result in novel means of social inclusion, and the development of new knowledge, new technologies, or new means of using existing technological or social innovations better. Effort should also be made to evaluate the impacts on society, democracy, the economy, science itself, and the individual citizen scientists involved.
The second aspect involves the development of one or more frugal innovations with/by citizens. The intended activities should involve citizens and/or civil society organisations alongside innovators, with the primary aim of developing frugal innovations. Frugal innovations minimise cost and complexity and are aimed at low-income population groups in any part of the world that are scalable, durable and environmentally sustainable, but often using state-of-the-art technologies and know-how.