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“Actionable knowledge has been defined as information that actors could use” Chris Argyris, (1995) “Action science and organizational learning”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 10 Issue: 6, pp.20-26, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683949510093849).
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[In Elements of an Intervention] Activities are the actions undertaken by the intervention; tasks undertaken to transform inputs into outputs. Activities are usually based on strategies.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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The concept of agency refers to the ability of social actors to act independently of structures and rules. In order to mediate between structure and agency, Bourdieu introduced the concept of “habitus,”* the attitudes that actors internalize while being conditioned by past experiences, and re-enact in present everyday practices, though with a certain degree of freedom. Outline of a Theory of Practice – Bourdieu
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Vines et al. Configuring participation. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2470716
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The process of determining, judging or deciding the amount, value, quality, or importance of  something (e.g. a person or a situation); as well as the resulting judgment.
  • Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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(In elements of a Theory of Change) Assumptions are statements about accepted cause and effect relationships, or estimates of a fact deducted or from the known existence of other fact(s). They provide a basis for the generation of concepts, strategies, and actions by enabling the creation of “what if” scenarios to simulate possible situations and explain how and why the strategy will work. Assumptions can be misleading when accepted as reality without examination.
  • Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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Clearly defined starting point from where implementation begins, improvement is judged, or a comparison is made. A baseline study is an analysis of current situation to identify the starting points for a program or project, providing an initial collection of data which serves as a basis for comparison with the subsequently acquired data.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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“a science which assists the needs and concerns of citizens … [and] at the same time [is] a form of science developed and enacted by citizens themselves” (p. xi) Irwin, A. (1995). Citizen science: a study of people, expertise, and sustainable development. London: Routledge.
5 models based on degree of public participation in scientific research (‘the 5 Cs:

  1. Contractual projects, where communities ask professional researchers to conduct a specific scientific investigation and report on the results;
  2. Contributory projects, which are generally designed by scientists and for which members of the public primarily contribute data;
  3. Collaborative projects, which are generally designed by scientists and for which members of the public contribute data but also help to refine project design, analyze data, and/or disseminate findings;
  4. Co-Created projects, which are designed by scientists and members of the public working together and for which at least some of the public participants are actively involved in most or all aspects of the research process; and
  5. Collegial contributions, where non-credentialed individuals conduct research independently with varying degrees of expected recognition by institutionalized science and/or professionals.
Shirk, J.L., Ballard, H.L., Wilderman, C.C., Phillips, T., Wiggins, A., Jordan, R., McCallie, E., Minarchek, M., Lewenstein, B.V., Krasny, M.E. and Bonney, R., 2012. Public participation in scientific research: a framework for deliberate design. Ecology and Society, 17(2).
“another method of engaging the public in research is to involve individuals in actual scientific studies, either by providing opportunities for people to serve as research assistants or by enabling them to conduct their own original investigations” Bonney, R. 2004. Understanding the process of research. Creating Connections: Museums and the Public Understanding of Current Research. Altamira Press, CA, 199-­‐210.
Citizen science is scientific practice, research and conservation tool, collective intelligence, complementary of professional research practice, performed by citizen scientists or by the public, described as: non-scientists, non-experts, non-professional scientists, trained observers, laypersons, amateurs, enthusiasts, not having formal science background, who collaborate, help, volunteer in scientific research projects Nascimento, S. et al., 2014. From Citizen Science to Do It Yourself Science. European Commission: JRC Science and Policy Report, p.9
CS is a new knowledge creation methodology that involves citizen participation in different stages of knowledge creation processes. (Some equivalent terms: Participatory Science and Community Science) https://drive.google.com/file/d/1w9x0_W_73lJG0_IqBobGhAgmZpBh0LEC/view?usp=sharing reference the WeObserve CoPs
Scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions Oxford English Dictionary
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the observations, insights and involvement of ‘ordinary’ citizens – alongside those of scientists and professionals – are included into earth observation, environmental conservation as well as decision making. (p.2073) Wehn, U., McCarty, S., Lanfranchi, V. and Tapsell, S. (2015) Citizen observatories as facilitators of change in water governance? Experiences from three
European cases
, Special Issue on ICTs and Water, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, Vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2073-2086.
a method, an environment and an infrastructure supporting an information ecosystem for communities and citizens, as well as emergency operators and policymakers, for discussion, monitoring and intervention on situations, places and events.” Ciravegna, F., Huwald, H., Lanfranchi, V., and Wehn de Montalvo, U. (2013). Citizen observatories: the WeSenseIt Vision. In proceeding of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE 2013). Florence, Italy, 23–27 June, 2013.
any use of Earth observation technology in which citizens collect data and are empowered by the information generated from these data to participate in environmental management. Grainger, A. (2017). Citizen Observatories and the New Earth Observation Science. Remote Sensing, 9(2), 153. doi:10.3390/rs9020153
“A CO for supporting community-based environmental governance may be defined as the participation of citizens in monitoring the quality of the environment they live in, with the help of one or more of the following: (1) mobile devices of everyday utility; (2) specialised static and/or portable environmental and/or wearable health sensors, and (3) personal, subjective and/or objective observations, information, annotation and exchange routes, coming from social media technologies or other similar platforms. “ Liu, H.-Y.; Kobernus, M.; Broday, D.; Bartonova, A. A conceptual approach to a citizens’ observatory—Supporting community-based environmental governance. Environ. Health 2014, 13, 107
New in-situ observatories (‘Citizen Observatories’) based on citizens’ own devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, laptops, and other social media) used together with innovative technologies can strengthen environmental monitoring capabilities, have the potential to generate new and original applications to reduce investment and running costs of in-situ observations and monitoring applications and solutions, and involve novel partnerships between the private sector, public bodies, NGOs and citizens European Commission Research & Innovation Participant Portal https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/sc5-17-2015.html (last accessed 26 June 2018)
“community-based environmental monitoring and information systems which build on innovative and novel Earth observation applications embedded in portable or mobile personal devices. Thanks to the vast array of ubiquitous information and data they can provide, citizens’ observatories can enable authorities to obtain evidence and inform environmental policy making, complementing more authoritative in-situ observation and monitoring networks and systems with a very positive cost-benefit ratio.“ European Commission Research & Innovation Participant Portal https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/sc5-17-2015.html (last accessed 26 June 2018)
the citizens’ own observations and understanding of environmentally related problems and in particular … reporting and commenting on them within a dedicated ICT platform Liu, H.-Y.; Kobernus, M.; Broday, D.; Bartonova, A. A conceptual approach to a citizens’ observatory—Supporting community-based environmental governance. Environ. Health 2014, 13, 107
A CO is not just about knowledge creation but also about knowledge application. COs are typically designed with linkages and (policy) impact in mind. While the goal in CS is for the involved citizens to contribute to science, the goal with the CO is to contribute to both science and environmental policies. Wehn, U., Maso, J., Prat, E., Fraisl, D., Cotton, C. (2019)WeObserve CoP Mid Term Progress Report, WeObserve Deliverable D2.3, May.
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Broadly speaking, the activity of creativity between two or more people. Co-creation can enable the production of tangible outcomes and/or non-physical creation of new ideas, collective awareness, understanding of critical challenges. Co-creation is referring to collaboration between different stakeholders for the purpose of knowledge production and decision making. Sanders, E.B.N. & Stappers, P.J. 2008. Co-Creation and the New Landscapes of Design. CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 5-18: DOI 10.1080/15710880701875068
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[scale] degrees of co-design Collective creativity applied to any point within the design process Sanders, E.B.N. & Stappers, P.J. 2008. Co-Creation and the New Landscapes of Design. CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 5-18: DOI 10.1080/15710880701875068
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The methods and methodologies which seek to support co-design
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CBM is defined as a process where concerned citizens, government agencies, industry, academia, community groups and local institutions collaborate to monitor, track and respond to issues of common community concern. Emphasis is placed on monitoring designed to promote sustainability, leadership of monitoring by the community rather than individual organizations and use of monitoring data to inform decision-making. In essence, the view is of community driven monitoring that seeks to better deliver needed information and feedback. (p.410) Whitelaw, G., Vaughan, H., Craig, B. et al. Environ Monit Assess (2003) 88: 409. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025545813057
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“ While some definitions refer to group or community measures rather than individual, others focus on measuring particular trends or outcomes. Although nuanced in their differences, existing definitions share a common focus in that they understand indicators as something (or many things) which can be monitored and can determine whether or not change occurs as a result of an intervention – be it a campaign, policy or other action” CLIs are information captured by the community that contextualises and complements sensor data.  This information or indicators is something (or many things) which can be monitored and can determine whether or not change has occurred as a  result of an intervention – be it a campaign, policy or other action. Coulson, S., Woods, M., Scott, M., Hemment, D., & Balestrini , M. (2018). Stop the Noise! Enhancing Meaningfulness in Participatory Sensing with Community Level Indicators. In Proceedings of the 2018 Designing Interactive Systems Conference (pp. 1183-1192). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
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Come together be shared expertise and passion, and collectively learn how to improve on their skills and enhance collective knowledge Wenger, E. 2015. Communities of Practice: A brief introduction. Wenger, E. & Snyder, W. M. 2000. Communities of Practice: The organizational frontier. Harvard Business Review 78(1), 139-146.
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[In Elements of an Intervention] Concept articulates what action needs to be taken and how in response to a challenge or problem that needs solving. The concept of citizen observatories suggests that the observations, insights and involvement of ‘ordinary’ citizens – and not just those of scientists and professionals – form an integral part of (earth) observation and decision making.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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A subset of participatory action research, co-operative inquiry the understanding that inquiry is pluralistic in nature and that it should be a collective process. It is also the way we can break down existing hierarchies between the researcher and subjects/participants. Heron, J. 1988. Validity in Co-operative Inquiry. In P. Reason (Ed.), Human Inquiry in Action: Developments in New Paradigm Research (pp. 40-59). London: Sage Publications. Heron, J. 1996. Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Reason, P. 1988. The Co-operative Inquiry Group. In P. Reason (Ed.), Human Inquiry in Action: Developments in New Paradigm Research (pp.18-39). London: Sage Publications.
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Do­‐It-‐Yourself / DIY scientists are non-­specialists, hobbyists and amateurs, but also an increasing number of professional scientists, doing science outside conventional university or lab settings, and instead in Makerspaces, FabLabs, Hackerspaces, Techshops, innovation and community-­‐based labs, or even in their homes, garages or schools. Nascimento, S. et al., 2014. From Citizen Science to Do It Yourself Science. European Commission: JRC Science and Policy Report, p.30
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Rigorous analysis of completed or ongoing activities that determine or support (management) accountability, effectiveness, and efficiency (i.e. an assessment with a judgment based on organization internal criteria). Evaluation of completed activities is called ex-post evaluation, post-hoc evaluation, or summative evaluation. Evaluation of current or on-going activities is called in-term evaluation.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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The policy and practices giving rise to particular forms of managing [a resource] in different contexts. Wehn. U., Collins, K., Anema, K., Basco-Carrera, L. and Lerebours, A., (2018) Stakeholder engagement in water governance as social learning: Lessons from practice, Water International, 43(1), 34-59.
‘‘the processes and institutions through which decisions are made related to [water]” (p.4) Lautze, J., de Silva, S., Giordano, M., Sanford, L., 2011. Putting the cart before the horse: water governance and IWRM. Nat. Resour. Forum 35 (1) 1–8.
In contrast to ‘government’, ‘governance’ highlights a shift from state-centred management towards ‘a greater reliance on horizontal, hybrid and associational forms of government’, involving a broader network of actors, including citizens (Hill and Lynn, 2005, p. 173; Swyngedouw, 2005). Water governance therefore consists of the processes of decision-making and definition of goals by a range of actors, while water management (and flood risk management more specifically) consists of targeted activities to attain such goals. Wehn, U., Rusca, M, Evers, J. and V. Lanfranchi (2015) Participation in flood risk management and the potential of citizen observatories: a governance analysis, Environmental Science and Policy, 48 (April), 225-236, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2014.12.017.
The structural elements of governance consist of four dimensions: institutions, actor networks, multi-level interactions, governance modes Pahl-Wostl, C., 2009. A conceptual framework for analysing adaptive capacity and multi-level learning processes in resource governance regimes. Glob. Environ. Chang. 19 (3) 354–365.
Principles of “good governance” [European context]: “Good governance relies on five principles. It should be open (EU institutions should work more openly), participative (the quality, relevance and effectiveness of EU policies depend on ensuring wide participation throughout the policy chain), accountable (roles in the legislative and executive processes must be clearly defined), effective (policies must be effective and timely; delivering what is needed on the basis of clear objectives) and coherent (policies and actions must be coherent and easily understood). European Commission, 2001 European governance – A white paper. Official Journal of the European Communities.
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The study of the effects of a new project (i.e. an assessment with a judgment based on organization-external factors). Impact assessments can be conducted ex ante as a study of possible negative consequences (e.g. environmental impact assessment), or ex post to determine the summary benefits and consequences of a policy or project with dispersed effects on larger populations or geographical areas.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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[In results-based assessment approaches[ Impacts broadly define the (widespread) changes over a longer period of time that result from an accumulation of outcomes and affect the wider economy and society beyond those directly affected by the intervention. They are strongly influenced by external factors.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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[In elements of a Theory of Change[ Influential factors or external factors are outside influences that can impact the ability of a project or investment to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. These external factors might include competition; social, legal and technological changes, and the economic and political environment.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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Design for the future use; designing conditions A process of developing socially engaging technology that can be used and appropriated beyond the capacity of the original design by those not necessarily included in the front end of the design process.Distinction between information infrastructure and infrastructuring.Infrastructure is both relational and ecological—it means different things to different groups and it is part of the balance of action, tools, and the built environment, inseparable from them. I Some of the difficulties of studying infrastructure are how to scale up from traditional ethnographic sites, how to manage large quantities of data such as those produced by transaction logs, and how to understand the interplay of online and offline behavior. Some of the tricks of the trade involved in meeting these challenges include studying the design of infrastructure, understanding the paradoxes of infrastructure as both transparent and opaque, including invisible work in the ecological analysis, and pinpointing the epistemological status of indicators. Studying infrastructuring addresses the challenges of empirically looking at the heterogeneous, extended and complex phenomena of infrastructuring with an emphasis on the necessarily emerging and open-ended processual qualities of information infrastructures. the ethnography of infrastructure. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312712471581 (Le Dantec & DiSalvo, 2013) Helena Karasti – Infrastructuring in PD https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2661450 Studying infrastructuring https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3211447 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/00027649921955326
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(In Elements of an Intervention) Inputs are resources such as people, raw materials, energy, information (including the concept), or finance that are put into a system such as a project, program or policy to obtain a desired output.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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Individuals or organisations who can initiate, facilitate and lead the citizen observation process.
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Projects aimed at making organizational, social, and individual changes. Vallejo and Wehn, (2016) based on Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010; Preskill & Boyle, 2008
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More diverse than two-way reciprocal exchange of knowledge, as KE is usually defined, it is multifaceted exchange of information and skills that is enhanced with diversity.
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Transformative learning is defined as a deep, structural shift in awareness that alters one’s way of being in the world and how one views interconnectedness among the universe, the natural environment, one’s personal world, and the human community. O’Sullivan E, Morrel A, O’Connor MA. 2003. Expanding the boundaries of transformative learning: essays on theory and praxis. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
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Environmental monitoring can be defined as the systematic sampling of air, water, soil, and biota in order to observe and study the environment, as well as to derive knowledge from this process Artiola et al., 2004; Wiersma, 2004-
[In Elements of an Intervention] The supervision of activities in progress to ensure they are on-course and on-schedule in meeting the objectives and performance targets.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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[In Elements of an Intervention] Objectives define and delineate the purpose and goals of a project, program or policy. Ideally, they are formulated to be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-dependent) in relation to the concept.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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[In results-based assessment approaches] Outcomes capture the immediate changes in a situation, including behavioural changes that result from the intervention outputs (including intended and unintended, positive and negative). They generally have a clear link with the intervention, but are influenced by external factors as well. Specific outcomes are emerging, observable social practices that involve stakeholders directly interacting with the outputs of the project. Wider outcomes (assessed in the impact assessment part of this framework) consist of the social, institutional, economic and environmental changes triggered by and attributable to the outputs. Outcomes can be positive/negative, tangible/intangible or expected/unexpected.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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[In results-based assessment approaches] Outputs are what is directly produced or supplied by an intervention, they often relate to the expected deliverables of the intervention and consist of tangible products or services produced as a result of the activities (and can be subject to external factors).
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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‘the practice of involving members of the public in the agenda setting, decision-making, and policy-forming activities of organizations/institutions responsible for policy development’. (p.253) Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. (2004). Evaluating public participation exercises: A research agenda. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 29(4), 512–556. doi:10.1177/0162243903259197Rowe and Frewer.
Participation in design can be  only successful if it meets three conditions: -it makes a difference for the participants; -implementation of the results is likely; -it is fun. Ehn, P. (1993). Scandinavian design: On participation and skill. https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/ifi/INF9200/v10/readings/papers/Ehn.pdf
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A research process which social interaction at the core, the aim is for the collective to analyze and reconsider social practices, the research itself can be considered a social practice. Forms of community of participants who actively construct their shared understanding of the subject at hand. Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. 2005. Participatory Action Research. In Dezin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.), The Handbook of Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
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PD is characterized by a particular organization of the design in that users are seen as co-designers in many – if not all – design activities (Bratteteig et al 2012). The particular organization of design is supported by methods and techniques that enable users to take that role. The way of practicing participation, inviting users and designers to collaborate, also has to do with the actual people involved and the collaborative spirit they create together (see e.g. Light and Akama 2012). Controversies and conflicts – if they exist – must be dealt with as the final design result often implements one perspective. A participatory design result is also the result of a social work process where the participants managed to share (some) power between them. Tone Bratteteig and Ina Wagner – Unpacking the notion of participation in Participatory Design https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/ifi/INF5200/v16/pensumliste/bratteteig-and-wagner-unpacking-participation-r3-finalfinal.pdf
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Public decision mechanisms (democracy cube): the scope of participation (who participates: from government representatives to the general public (citizens), the mode of communication and decision (how participants interact and what role they play), and the extent of authority (participation for personal benefit only (individual education), up to direct authority). Fung, A., 2006. Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public Adm. Rev. 66, 66–75.
Adjusted democracy cube: ‘communication and decision’ dimension incorporates implicit and explicit data collection possibilities so that it adequately captures the means of interaction and the roles that participants can now play in decision-making. ‘scope of participation’ dimension is adjusted to the specific stakeholders that may be involved in flood risk management and governance (ranging from citizens, citizen scientists, volunteers and trained volunteers, to various types of public sector institutions). Wehn, U., Rusca, M, Evers, J. and V. Lanfranchi (2015) Participation in flood risk management and the potential of citizen observatories: a governance analysis, Environmental Science and Policy, 48 (April), 225-236, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2014.12.017.
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Communities formed through shared challenges. However, the challenges are not the glue, but it is the sharing of information and the cause and effect those challenges have that define the community. Public(s) are formed through the identification and supporting the attachments (i.e. the social and material dependencies of the participants). Focusing on collective action through design, Le Dantec investigates the way design can draw people together on social issues and create and sustain a public. By “designing publics” he refers both to the way publics arise out of design intervention and to the generative action publics take-how they “do design” as they mobilize and act in the world. This double lens offers a new view of how design and a diverse set of design practices circulate in sites of collective action rather than commercial production. DiSalvo, C. 2009. Design and the Construction of Publics. Design Issues, 25(1), 48-63. Latour, B. 2004. Politics of Nature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Le Dantec – Designing Publics https://www.adlibris.com/se/bok/designing-publics-9780262035163
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Social design focuses on the creation of interactive systems meant to empower and support collective action. → To support and empower meaningful collective action, designers need to attend to the relations that occur in civic life. Situating design as social creation and cultural cognition – Christopher A. Le Dantec https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e89e/472664fe00c8184078bd0465be30e477fd85.pdfDesign through collective action – Le Dantec https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3018005
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Social innovation refers to the pro-cesses and outcomes focussed on addressing societal goals, unsatisfied col-lective needs or societal – as opposed to mere economic – returns. Social in-novation therefore consists of new combinations or hybrids of existing and new products, processes and services. To succeed, social innovation efforts need to consider the four technological and non-technological dimensions of the social innovation process: 1) technology, 2) capacity development, 3) gov-ernance structures and 4) multi-stakeholder co-creation of solutions. These dimensions cut across organisational, sectoral and disciplinary boundaries and imply new patterns of stakeholder involvement and learning. Wehn, U., Mendoza-Sammet, A., Amorsi, N. (2018) Initial Demand Driven Research and Innovation Outlook, AfriAlliance Deliverable D2.2, January.
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what matters about learning can be summarized into four premisses: – – we are social beings; knowledge is a matter of competence such as singing in tune, discovering scientific facts and so forth; – knowing is a matter of participating in such enterprises- that is of active engagement in the world and – meaning our ability to experience the world and our engagement with it as meaningful – is ultimately what learning is to produce E. Wenger. https://books.google.se/books?hl=sv&lr=&id=vQWPAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA209&dq=learning+etienne+wenger&ots=Nx-euLHGKk&sig=1gIe4ho_yQhIDrxR80Fgi0xwisk&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=learning%20etienne%20wenger&f=false
•The convergence of goals (expressed as purpose) •The process of co-creation of knowledge which provides insights into the causes of a situation and the means of its possible transformation •The changes in behaviours and actions resulting from new understandings •An emergent property of the process to transform a situation Collins, K., & Ison, R. (2009). Jumping off Arnstein’s Ladder: Social learning as a new policy paradigm for climate change adaptation. Environmental Policy and Governance, 19(6), 358–373. doi:10.1002/eet.v19:6
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A person who has an interest or finds something valuable to them, both in a tangible and intangible sense
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Understanding the various forms of value, and scale of value which stakeholders have in a project.
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[In Elements of a Theory of Change] Strategies are successful approaches, which a review of the state-of-the-art has identified that helped similar communities or organisations to achieve the kinds of results the project, programme or policy is attempting to elicit.
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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Assessment of an action, decision, concept, plan, or transaction to establish that it is correct, complete, being implemented (and/or recorded) as intended, and/or delivering the intended outcome (i.e. an assessment including a binary judgments such as correct/incorrect). Preliminary validation based on ongoing activities can be used as part of adaptive management to inform adjustments of assumptions and derivative actions
  •  Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project.
  • European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final.
  • Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington.
  • businessdictionary.com
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Typology of public value as services, outcomes and trust. Kelly, G.,Mulgan, G., &Muers, S. (2002). Creating Public Value: An Analytical Framework for Public Service Reform, Discussion paper prepared by the Cabinet Office Strategy Unit. United Kingdom: Cabinet Officer
Taxonomy of public values: Duty oriented, Service oriented, Socially oriented Bannister, F., & Connolly, R. (2014). ICT, public values and transformative government: A framework and programme for research. Government Information Quarterly , 31 (1), 119-128.
Values as those supporting public sector reform and those supporting good governance, i.e. between managerial values and democratic values Bonina, C. M., & Cordella, A. (2009). Public sector reforms and the notion of ‘public value’: Implications for egovernment deployment. Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems, 6th–9th August, San Francisco, CA (Available at: http:// eprints.lse.ac.uk/43672/.
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New technologies supporting data collection, data processing and visualisation, and the communication of ideas and results create a wide range of opportunities for participation in citizen science. • Technologies are especially beneficial for opening additional channels for public involvement in research, allowing participants to contribute through a range of activities and engaging new audiences. • There is a range of existing resources to help project co-ordinators develop and maintain citizen science technologies. • It is important to consider issues such as participant demographics, affordability and access, and fitness for purpose when selecting technologies. Hecker, S., Haklay, M., Bowser, A., Makuch, Z., Vogel, J. & Bonn, A. 2018. Citizen Science: Innovation in Open Science, Society and Policy. UCL Press, London. https://doi.org/10.14324 /111.9781787352339https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328733606_Citizen_science_technologies_and_new_opportunitie…

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References:

Blume, B. D., Ford, J. K., Baldwin, T. T., & Huang, J. L. (2010). Transfer of training: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 36(4), 1040–1064. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206309352880 http://www.businessdictionary.com European Commission (2015) Better Regulation Guidelines, Strasbourg, SWD(2015) 111 final. Morra-Imas, L.G. and Rist, R.C. (2009) The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations, The World Bank: Washington. Wehn, U., Pfeiffer, E., Gharesifard, M., Anema, K., & Remmers, M. (2017). Ground Truth 2.0 project deliverable 1.10: Methodology for validation and impact assessment. Delft, The Netherlands: Ground Truth 2.0 project. Preskill, H., & Boyle, S. (2008). A multidisciplinary model of evaluation capacity building. American Journal of Evaluation, 29(4), 443–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098214008324182.

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